Venues - Transport
The İstanbul 2020 Games concept strikes a careful balance between delivering a spectacular, innovative and technically excellent Games experience for all, capitalising on the opportunity to accelerate existing well-developed City Master Plans and minimising Games delivery risks.
The resulting Games Master Plan presents a series of seven compact clusters in four zones connected by a fast and efficient Games Route Network (GRN) that enables journey times of no more than 35 minutes from the Games Villages to all venues. Each cluster is well served by mass transit transport.
Olympic City Zone - 2 clusters, 1 precinct, 14 venues
The largest of the four zones, the Olympic City Zone is located in the city’s populous and important western growth region, with significant existing and planned transport infrastructure.
Olympic City Cluster
The Olympic City Cluster comprises the İstanbul Olympic Park Precinct (11 venues – Atatürk Olympic Stadium, National Arena, Olympic Training Centre Halls 1-4, Olympic Tennis Centre, Olympic Hockey Centre, Olympic Aquatic Centre, Olympic Diving Stadium, Olympic Water Polo Stadium), as well as the Olympic and Paralympic Village, the Media Village, the IBC/MPC and the Technical Officials Village.
The development of the Olympic City Cluster will establish a new geographical heart for the high-growth western expansion of the City of İstanbul. The Olympic City Cluster will provide much needed amenity to the region, including sporting and recreational facilities, housing, commercial and institutional developments, as well as a significant amount of environmental remediation resulting in additional parklands and green space.
This cluster is designed to be a dynamic and active backdrop to the Games. The venues are deliberately positioned to act as anchors that draw the spectators both literally and also visually throughout the İstanbul Olympic Park Precinct
. The architecture and landscape will reflect the excitement of the event, while also expressing the cultural and artistic beauty of Turkey. The eastern edge of the spectator common domain is designed to provide a visual connection for spectators between the precinct and the picturesque natural valley beyond.
Legacy of the İstanbul Olympic Park Precinct is ensured as a result of the wide variety of sports venues available for use for competition and training post-Games, as well as the balanced mix of residential, retail and commercial within the Master Plan.
The Esenler Cluster includes three new venues (Olympic Basketball Centre, Esenler Golf Club and National Equestrian Centre) that deliver sporting legacy facilities for the proximate post-Games Olympic City population and the adjacent military academy.
The existing undulating landscape of this area will be integrated within the Esenler Golf Club and National Equestrian Centre design. In addition, new landscape elements will be introduced to further enhance this cluster and encourage the continued aspiration of an improved ‘green lung’, providing a significant legacy benefit for the local community.
Coastal Zone - 2 clusters, 1 precinct, 7 venues
Home to the historic sites along the Marmara Sea shoreline, the Coastal Zone is currently the site of significant regeneration and restoration programmes. This zone includes many of the most significant historic sites in İstanbul, dating back to ancient empires, including the city walls and the Golden Gate, once the ceremonial entrance to the ancient city.
The Olympic plan has been carefully aligned with the current programme of the restoration in this area and will focus on the creation of public space and parklands, supporting temporary venues. Excellent connectivity is assured through existing Metro and major urban arterial roads.
Old City Cluster
The Old City Cluster incorporates three venues (Golden Gate Park, Golden Gate Marina and Golden Gate Arena), a live site and an elevated spectator plaza to enable optimal viewing for road events in this picturesque location. Approximately 100 hectares of parkland will be created around the Golden Gate to support the programme of restoration which is already in place, showcasing the significance of this important site.
The Golden Gate Arena, proposed for Handball and Goalball, is well positioned adjacent to the old city wall, providing a stunning backdrop for spectators and for broadcast. The outdoor events along the shoreline are located where the ancient wall meets the sea, providing an exciting fusion between the rich history of İstanbul and a world-class modern sporting event.
Linked to the Old City Cluster by a linear waterfront park, the Ataköy Cluster comprises the Ataköy Precinct (three venues - Ataköy Dome, Ataköy Arena and Olympic Velodrome) and the Ataköy Marina in an attractive coastal area.
The existing Ataköy Dome and Ataköy Arena will be joined with a new structure for the Olympic Velodrome. This will complete the vision for an exciting legacy sports precinct, offering a wide mixed use of sports and retail opportunities.
Bosphorus Zone - 2 clusters, 1 precinct, 8 venues, ceremonies venue
Located in the heart of the old city, the Bosphorus Zone provides the stage for hosting events concurrently on the European and Asian sides of the city, activating the majestic waterway for competition and public events.
Importantly, the ongoing urban reclamation of the İstanbul waterfront and preservation of historic monuments in this zone of the city will be accelerated through the proposed Olympic project.
The existing network of major roads will also be enhanced with the completion of the Marmaray Rail Tunnel and the Eurasia Tunnel Project in 2013 and 2016 respectively.
The Port Cluster comprises the Port Precinct (five venues – Bosphorus Stadium, Bosphorus Rowing Centre, Bosphorus Beach Volleyball Centre, National Volleyball Centre and Bosphorus Archery Park), the Kadıköy Stadium and the redeveloped Haydarpaşa Port, generating significant public space on the waterfront.
The redeveloped Haydarpaşa Port will be the focal point of the Bosphorus Zone. The Olympic Games will provide the catalyst for this project, one of the most significant urban projects planned for the City of İstanbul. The phased relocation of port activities has already commenced.
The precinct design acknowledges the prime location of the site, directly adjacent to the Golden Horn. The centrepiece, the Bosphorus Stadium, conceptually symbolises the meeting point between the two continents.
Two venues (İnönü Stadium and Congress Valley Auditorium) make up the Taksim Cluster.
The existing İnönü Stadium is positioned to maximise the dramatic views across the Bosphorus and the adjoining palace. The existing open air amphitheatre of the Congress Valley Auditorium will be enclosed with a new roof that will optimise its legacy usage and provide an ideal venue for the theatrical lighting required for the broadcast of Weightlifting competition.
The Taksim area is home to a significant number of 5 star hotels, and several of the Games Family hotels will be located within this cluster, with spectacular outlooks over the Bosphorus and Marmara Sea.
Forest Zone - 1 cluster, 1 precinct, 4 venues
Situated in the north of the city, the Belgrad Forest is undergoing a major remediation programme to return green space to İstanbul residents. Already well served by Metro, road infrastructure in the zone will be upgraded to improve connectivity.
Belgrad Forest Cluster
This cluster comprises the Belgrad Forest Precinct (three venues – Belgrad Forest Cycle Park, Olympic Whitewater Stadium and the National Shooting Centre), as well as the Seyrantepe Stadium.
Surrounded by hills and trees, the Belgrad Forest Cluster is a natural oasis within the city. All venues proposed in this precinct will be designed to operate efficiently together during the Games, while leaving a lasting outdoor activity legacy for the city.
Specific environmental remediation projects are already underway within the footprint of the proposed Games venues, ensuring the Games will have an immediate impact in accelerating plans already in place.
Standalone venues - 4 venues
In addition to the venues situated in the four zones, there are four standalone venues:
–– The Ataşehir Arena located in Batı Ataşehir district on the Asian side is the proposed venue for Volleyball, and is a new world-class facility
–– Regional Football competition will be conducted in the cities of Ankara, Antalya and Bursa (New Ankara Stadium, New Antalya Stadium and New Bursa Stadium). Turkey is a leading football nation and the proposed football stadiums are world-class in all respects.
Strategy and objectives
İstanbul 2020 aspires to provide an exceptional transport experience to all Games Family clients and to ensure a seamless, interoperable network for spectators and workforce. At the same time, disruption of the everyday rhythm of the city will be minimised.
To leverage the existing and planned infrastructure of the city, the Games transport plan is fully aligned with İstanbul’s Integrated Urban Transport Master Plan (IUAP) for 2009-2023. The seven venue clusters are well interconnected through high capacity transport systems and road links that respect the unique İstanbul topography.
All physical, technical and human links of the Games transport chain will collaborate efficiently, allowing Games clients to move safely and smoothly, and to enjoy the festive atmosphere and the city’s spectacular features.
Public transport users and motorists will receive extensive support in making their travel decisions. Transport modes and fleets will conform to the latest sustainability standards and technologies, while safety and security will be maintained at the highest levels. Intelligent technology will support operations, while inclusiveness will permeate İstanbul’s transport plans.
The above transport objectives form the foundation of the customised transport strategies for all clients.
Atatürk International Airport (IST) will be the main gateway airport for the Games, with a capacity of 45 million passengers per year and three runways allowing over 1,000 runway movements daily. Its three terminals and 63 gates can process over 10,000 passengers per hour. IST is Europe’s fastest growing airport (Airports Council International - ACI). In 2011 it was the eighth busiest airport in Europe and 30th in the world in passenger traffic. Capitalising on its prime location at the intersection of two continents, IST is the central hub in this key region.
The Sabiha Gökçen International Airport (SAW) will be the second Games gateway. Its new terminal has a capacity of 25 million passengers per year, allowing for significant growth potential. According to ACI, SAW was Europe’s fastest growing airport in its category for 2010 and was voted as the world’s best by the 2010 World Low Cost Airlines Congress.
The current combined capacity of İstanbul’s two airports significantly exceeds the requirements for the Games. The airports of the regional football cities in Ankara and Antalya also comfortably meet Games requirements. Bursa will be served by both SAW and IST.
Over 120 airlines directly connect Atatürk International Airport with five continents and 169 international cities, as well as 31 cities in Turkey. An additional 85 international and 30 national connections are served by SAW. On a weekly basis, a combined total of 2,781 international flights and 1,995 domestic flights land at IST and SAW.
Turkish Airlines now fl¬ies to more countries than any other airline in the world.
Transport infrastructure plan
İstanbul enjoys continuously expanding transport infrastructure that supports 15 million motorised journeys per day: 3,500 km of motorways and major arterials; two light rail lines (34.8 km); a 72 km suburban railway line; a high capacity 51 km Bus Rapid Transit system (Metrobüs); four Metro lines (74.3 km); and two world-class international airports. More than 5,200 buses transport 5.5 million passengers per day, while numerous sea ferries connect the European and Asian sides of the city.
To address the city’s growth while easing traffic pressures, the 2009-2023 Integrated Urban Transport Master Plan (IUAP) charts a significant development of multi-modal public transport networks, prioritising investments into Metro systems. All projects are aligned with İstanbul’s linear footprint and ensure the integrity of its heritage, preserved throughout the centuries.
Implementation of the IUAP is currently underway and significant Metro projects have already been delivered, including the new M3 and M4 Metro Lines. The elements of the IUAP that will benefit the Games amount to a total investment of USD9.8 billion, USD3.0 billion of which is already completed. The remaining USD6.8 billion to be spent over six years is on par with the average annual city investment of USD1.2 billion in transport.
–– The Marmaray project, a USD4 billion upgrade and conversion of the existing suburban railway line to Metro, connecting Halkalı on the European side with Gebze on the Asian side (already 56% complete, including 85% of the immersed tube tunnel)
–– Four targeted Metro connectors that will facilitate network integration
–– The M6 Metro Line, a USD1.5 billion investment connecting Kabataş by the Bosphorus Strait with the densely populated Mahmutbey area
–– The Bosphorus Road Crossing (the Eurasia Tunnel Project), a USD1.2 billion investment connecting Kazlıçeşme and Göztepe, including 9.2 km of road upgrades and a 5.4 km twin-deck undersea road tunnel. Buses of 2.8m height will use this tunnel to carry athletes from the Olympic and Paralympic Village to the Port Cluster venues within 30 minutes.
While not directly related to the Games Master Plan, the North Marmara Motorway, a ring road that includes a third bridge over the Bosphorus, is currently under construction. Also, İMM is currently constructing a 20 km Metro line between Üsküdar and Çekmeköy (M5 Metro line), which, although it does not provide direct access to any venue, provides vital connectivity with the Marmaray Line.
By 2018, İstanbul’s rail network will extend over 264 km and will serve all competition venues with at least one line. All investments have guaranteed funding, are aligned with the Games Master Plan and will enhance the mobility of citizens.
Public transport network
İstanbul has planned a zero car access strategy for spectators and workforce with travel to venues provided exclusively through the public transport (PT) network. By 2020 the PT network will support 50% of all trips, leveraging the city’s public transport culture. The Games PT network will integrate high capacity, mass transit modes and will satisfy the following strategic imperatives:
–– It will be fully accessible
–– It will serve all venues with stations within walking distance from the venue front of house
–– All planned network investments are fully aligned with İstanbul’s Integrated Urban Transport Master Plan (IUAP), placing emphasis on systems required for the city’s sustainable development
The Games PT network will capitalise on the significant growth of İstanbul’s mass transit systems, which is well underway and utilises the Metro to transform the city’s transport landscape. Metro lines will traverse the entire city, originating from its centre and extending radially. A new circular Metro line (M6) will allow for efficient interconnections. Metrobüs and ferry services will provide vital access to certain venues from İstanbul’s Asian side and will integrate with Metro and Tram. The strategic Park and Rail facilities will enable access to the Games PT network. At least one Metro and Tram service will serve each proposed cluster with an average station to venue distance of less than 1 km.
The accessibility of the Games PT network is in full compliance with the Turkish Disability Act (#5378). Network capacity is capable of comfortably serving the Games surge. The network is resilient, providing alternative options to access all venues in each cluster. It serves four of seven clusters with more than one high capacity mode. Resilience for the remaining clusters will be provided by dedicated shuttle bus routes.
Transport travel times and distances
The exclusive GRN will provide free flow conditions for Games vehicles, and will capitalise on the road network investments, including the critical connectivity enhancement between Europe and AsiIn order to guarantee reliable travel times, İstanbul 2020 and İMM have identified all areas in which GRN flow may be impeded and have planned junction improvements and/or management measures. In addition, demand management will moderate city background traffic to the point that Games traffic is facilitated while the city continues to function.
As a result, İstanbul’s plans ensure that 91% of athletes’ trips will be within 30 minutes, with an average trip time of 16 minutes. 44% of athletes will compete at venues within five minutes (3 km) or less from the Olympic and Paralympic Village.
If the NOC Hotel Precinct is factored in, then 96% of athletes’ trips will be within 30 minutes of competition venues and 69% within 10 minutes. The average athlete trip reduces to 12 minutes.
Media will enjoy similar travel times from the IBC/MPC and the nearby Media Village. The main hotel area will be within 30 minutes from all competition venues. Atatürk International Airport will be 15 minutes from the Media Village and 25 minutes from the main hotel area.
Ticketed spectators will be provided with free access to all public transport (PT) modes on the day of the event. This policy will be effective within the entire İstanbul metropolitan area and will encourage spectators to use PT for their end-to-end trip. It will be implemented using İstanbul’s interoperable travel card system, which is continually being upgraded to the latest technologies. Workforce and all accredited Games Family members will also be provided with free access to PT systems.
To encourage and support spectator PT travel, İstanbul will develop state-of-the-art online spectator journey planners incorporating personalised daily itineraries. These will supplement the comprehensive guides available on the İMM website and smart phone services. Personalised messaging to ticketed spectators will also be provided based on origin information. Furthermore, a vigorous travel demand management campaign will be developed to steer both spectator and background demand to appropriate modes.
Public transport arrangements
The İstanbul 2020 accommodation plan comprises key clusters of accommodation facilities for all Games client groups and spectators. This cluster-based accommodation plan is fully integrated into the
Games transport strategy, enabling all guests of the hotel accommodation areas to have easy access to the rail-based public transport network of İstanbul.
In particular, the Olympic City Cluster is already well served by the M3 Metro line and will further benefit from the extension of the Marmaray Line by 2018. In addition to providing excellent public transport access to the accommodation zones along the coastal strip and those close to Atatürk International Airport, the Marmaray Line connects with the M2 Metro line to provide good access to the central accommodation zones in the Taksim Cluster.
Ticketed spectators will enjoy free travel on İstanbul’s public transport systems on the day of their ticketed event. This will be enabled through the City’s interoperable travel card system, which is continuously being upgraded to the latest technologies.